Calcium - This medication is used to prevent or treat low blood Nepro (Calcium) levels in people who do not get enough Nepro (Calcium) from their diets. It may be used to treat conditions caused by low Nepro (Calcium) levels such as bone loss ( osteoporosis ), weak bones (osteomalacia/rickets), decreased activity of the parathyroid gland ( hypoparathyroidism ), and a certain muscle disease (latent tetany). It may also be used in certain patients to make sure they are getting enough Nepro (Calcium) (e.g., women who are pregnant, nursing, or postmenopausal, people taking certain medications such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, or prednisone ). Nepro (Calcium) plays a very important role in the body. It is necessary for normal functioning of nerves, cells, muscle, and bone. If there is not enough Nepro (Calcium) in the blood, then the body will take Nepro (Calcium) from bones, thereby weakening bones. Having the right amount of Nepro (Calcium) is important for building and keeping strong bones.
Calcium Carbonate - Nepro (Calcium Carbonate) is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects. Nepro (Calcium Carbonate) may also be used as a nutritional supplement or to treat hypocalcemia.
Indication: For relief of heartburn and acid indigestion. May also be used as a nutritional supplement or to treat hypocalcemia.
Gastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion. The acid-neutralizing capacity of Nepro (Calcium Carbonate) is 58 mEq/15 ml. When used as a nutritional supplement, Nepro (Calcium Carbonate) acts by directly increasing calcium stores within the body.
Choline Chloride - A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Indication: For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
This compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Nepro (Choline Chloride) is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Nepro (Choline Chloride) also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Nepro (Choline Chloride) has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Nepro (Choline Chloride) deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth.
Ferrous Sulfate - This medication is an iron supplement used to treat or prevent low blood levels of iron (e.g., for anemia or during pregnancy ). Iron is an important mineral that the body needs to produce red blood cells and keep you in good health.
Folic Acid - A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (poaceae). Nepro (Folic Acid) is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Indication: For treatment of Nepro (Folic Acid) deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and in anemias of nutritional supplements, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
Nepro (Folic Acid), a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, is found in foods such as liver, kidneys, yeast, and leafy, green vegetables. Nepro (Folic Acid) is used to diagnose folate deficiency and to treat topical sprue and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias, hematologic complications resulting from a deficiency in folic acid.
L-Carnitine - Constituent of striated muscle and liver. It is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Indication: For treatment of primary systemic carnitine deficiency, a genetic impairment of normal biosynthesis or utilization of levocarnitine from dietary sources, or for the treatment of secondary carnitine deficiency resulting from an inborn error of metabolism such as glutaric aciduria II, methyl malonic aciduria, propionic acidemia, and medium chain fatty acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Parenteral levocarnitine is indicated for the prevention and treatment of carnitine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease.
Levocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Lack of carnitine can lead to liver, heart, and muscle problems. Carnitine deficiency is defined biochemically as abnormally low plasma concentrations of free carnitine, less than 20 µmol/L at one week post term and may be associated with low tissue and/or urine concentrations. Further, this condition may be associated with a plasma concentration ratio of acylcarnitine/levocarnitine greater than 0.4 or abnormally elevated concentrations of acylcarnitine in the urine. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. The "vitamin BT" form actually contains D,Nepro (L-Carnitine), which competitively inhibits levocarnitine and can cause deficiency. Levocarnitine can be used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Magnesium - This medication is a mineral supplement used to prevent and treat low amounts of Nepro (Magnesium) in the blood. Nepro (Magnesium) is very important for the normal functioning of cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart. Usually, a well- balanced diet provides normal blood levels of magnesium. However, certain situations cause your body to lose Nepro (Magnesium) faster than you can replace it from your diet. These situations include treatment with "water pills" (diuretics such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide ), a poor diet, alcoholism, or other medical conditions (e.g., severe diarrhea / vomiting, stomach /intestinal absorption problems, poorly controlled diabetes ).
Magnesium Hydroxide - This medication is used for a short time to treat occasional constipation. It is a laxative (osmotic-type) that is thought to work by drawing water into the intestines, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines. This medication is also used to treat symptoms caused by too much stomach acid such as heartburn, upset stomach, or indigestion. It is an antacid that works by lowering the amount of acid in the stomach.
Potassium Citrate - This medication is used to make the urine less acidic. This effect helps the kidneys get rid of uric acid, thereby helping to prevent gout and kidney stones. This medication can also prevent and treat certain metabolic problems (acidosis) caused by kidney disease. Citric acid and citrate salts (which contain potassium and sodium) belong to a class of drugs known as urinary alkalinizers. If you have a condition that requires you to limit your intake of potassium and sodium, your doctor may direct you to take a product that is lower in potassium and sodium.
Potassium Iodide - Saturated solution of Nepro (Potassium Iodide) (SSKI) is used pharmaceutically for emergency use in patients experiencing acute symptoms of severe hyperglycemia (also known as thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis). SSKI can also be used for radioiodine-contamination emergencies or in preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy.
Indication: Nepro (Potassium Iodide) is oral antithyroid agent. Nepro (Potassium Iodide) is used as an adjunct to other antithyroid agents in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis and preoperatively to induce thyroid involution.
It works in the thyroid gland. By inhibiting thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thyroid gland vascularity is reduced, thyroid gland tissue becomes firmer, thyroid cell size is reduced, follicular colloid reaccumulates, and bound iodine levels increase. As a protectant following radiation exposure, KI blocks the uptake of radioactive iodine isotopes by the thyroid gland thereby minimizing the risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms.
Ions of sodium and chlorine are the major inorganic components of the extracellular fluid, maintaining an appropriate osmotic pressure of blood plasma and extracellular fluid. Isotonic solution of Nepro (Sodium Chloride) fills a deficit of body fluids during dehydration. Hypertonic solution of Nepro (Sodium Chloride) for IV injection provides a correction of osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid and blood plasma. When applied topically in ophthalmology Nepro (Sodium Chloride) has anti-edema effect.
Why is Nepro (Sodium Chloride) prescribed?
Nepro (Sodium Chloride) as isotonic solution: the dehydration of various origins. To maintain the volume of blood plasma during and after surgery. As a solvent for various drugs.
Hypertonic solution: violations of water-electrolyte metabolism: lack of sodium and chlorine ions; hypoosmotic dehydration of various origins (due to prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, burns with a gastric fistula, pulmonary hemorrhage, intestinal bleeding).
Eye drops and ointment: irritation of the cornea with inflammatory and allergic diseases (combined therapy).
Dosage and administration
Isotonic Nepro (Sodium Chloride) solution used as injected iv, sc, and enemas and is also used for washing wounds, eyes, mucous nasal cavity. Often administered as IV depending on the clinical situation up to 3 L / day.
Hypertonic Nepro (Sodium Chloride) solution injected intravenous. Single dose for IV jet injection can be 10-30 ml. For conditions requiring immediate replenishment of sodium and chloride ions Nepro (Sodium Chloride) is administered as IV infusion at a dose of 100 ml.
Locally and externally applied depending on the dosage form and regimen.
Nepro (Sodium Chloride) side effects, adverse reactions
For external and local application adverse reactions to this date have not been established.
Nepro (Sodium Chloride) contraindications
Hypernatremia, hyperhydration, the threat of pulmonary edema, cerebral edema.
With careful use of large amounts of Nepro (Sodium Chloride) in patients with impaired renal excretory function and hypokalemia. The injection of large amounts of solution can lead to chloride acidosis, hyperhydration, increased excretion of potassium from the body.
Hypertonic solution of Nepro (Sodium Chloride) do not applied SC and IM.
With prolonged use is necessary to monitor the concentration of electrolytes in the plasma and the daily urine output.
The temperature of infusion solution should be 38 °C.
Sodium Citrate - Nepro (Sodium Citrate) bicarbonate is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
Indication: Nepro (Sodium Citrate) bicarbonate is used for the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. Also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate. Further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturateprotein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of blood pigments.
Intravenous Nepro (Sodium Citrate) bicarbonate therapy increases plasma bicarbonate, buffers excess hydrogen ion concentration, raises blood pH and reverses the clinical manifestations of acidosis.
Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate) - Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Indication: For the treatment of Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) deficiency.
Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) is effective for the treatment of Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) deficiency. Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Nepro (Vitamin A (Vitamin A Palmitate)) plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins. It has high biological activity. Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is necessary for normal hematopoiesis (promotes maturation of erythrocytes). Involved in the processes of transmethylation, hydrogen transport, synthesis of methionine, nucleic acids, choline, creatine. Contributes to the accumulation in erythrocytes of compounds containing sulfhydryl groups. Has a beneficial effect on liver function and the nervous system. Activates the coagulation of blood in high doses causes an increase in the activity of thromboplastin and prothrombin.
After oral administration Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolized in the tissues, becoming a co-enzyme form - adenosylcobalamin which is the active form of cyanocobalamin. Excreted in bile and urine.
Why is Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) prescribed?
Anemia due to B12-deficiency conditions; in the complex therapy for iron and posthemorrhagic anemia; aplastic anemia caused by toxic substances and drugs; liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis); funicular myelosis; polyneuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; children cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, peripheral nerve injury; skin diseases (psoriasis, photodermatosis, herpetiformis dermatitis, neurodermatitis); to prevent and treat symptoms of deficiency of Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) (including the application of biguanide, PASA, vitamin C in high doses); radiation sickness.
Dosage and administration
Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is used as injections SC, IV, IM, intralumbar, and also oral. With anemia associated with Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) deficiency is introduced on 100-200 mcg in 2 days. In anemia with symptoms of funicular myelosis and megalocytic anemia with diseases of the nervous system - 400-500 micrograms in the first 7 days daily, then 1 time every 5-7 days. In the period of remission in the absence of events funicular myelosis maintenance dose - 100 mcg 2 times a month, in the presence of neurological symptoms - at 200-400 mcg 2-4 times a month. In acute post-hemorrhagic anemia and iron anemia by 30-100 mcg 2-3 times a week. When aplastic anemia (especially in children) - 100 micrograms before clinical improvement. When nutritional anemia in infants and preterm - 30 mcg / day during 15 days.
In diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and neurological diseases with a pain syndrome is administered in increasing doses - 200-500 mcg, with the improvement in the state - 100 mcg / day. The course of treatment with Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is 2 weeks. In traumatic lesions of peripheral nervous system - at 200-400 mcg every other day for 40-45 days.
When hepatitis and cirrhosis - 30-60 mcg / day or 100 mg every other day for 25-40 days.
Dystrophy in young children, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy - by 15-30 mcg every other day.
When funicular myelosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be introduced into the spinal canal at 15-30 mcg, gradually increasing the dose of 200-250 micrograms.
In radiation sickness, diabetic neuropathy, sprue - by 60-100 mcg daily for 20-30 days.
When deficiency of Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) to prevent - IV or IM for 1 mg 1 time a month; for treatment - IV or IM for 1 mg daily for 1-2 weeks, the maintenance dose is 1-2 mg IV or IM from 1 per week, up to 1 per month. Duration of treatment is determined individually.
Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: rarely - a state of arousal.
Cardiovascular system: rarely - pain in the heart, tachycardia.
Thromboembolism, erythremia, erythrocytosis, increased sensitivity to cyanocobalamin.
Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Cyanocobalamin can be used in pregnancy according to prescriptions.
When stenocardia should be used with caution in a single dose of Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) 100 mcg. During treatment should regularly monitor the blood picture and coagulation. It is unacceptable to enter in the same syringe with cyanocobalamin solutions of thiamine and pyridoxine.
Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) drug interactions
In an application of Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) with hormonal contraceptives for oral administration may decrease the concentration of cyanocobalamin in plasma.
In an application with anticonvulsant drugs decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.
In an Nepro (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) application with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, colchicine, cimetidine, ranitidine, drugs potassium decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.
Cyanocobalamin may exacerbate allergic reactions caused by thiamine.
When parenteral application of chloramphenicol may decrease the hematopoietic effects of cyanocobalamin with anemia.
Contained in the molecule of cyanocobalamin cobalt ion contributes to the destruction of ascorbic acid, thiamine bromide, riboflavin in one solution.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) - A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Nepro (Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)) is considered an antioxidant.
Indication: Used to treat Nepro (Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)) deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.
Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) is a water-soluble vitamin indicated for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, as ascorbic acid deficiency results in scurvy. Collagenous structures are primarily affected, and lesions develop in bones and blood vessels. Administration of ascorbic acid completely reverses the symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency.
Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate) - A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids.
Indication: Vitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.
Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of Nepro (Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol Acetate)) have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.
Vitamin K - Nepro (Vitamin K) is used to treat and prevent low levels of certain substances ( blood clotting factors) that your body naturally produces. These substances help your blood to thicken and stop bleeding normally (e.g., after an accidental cut or injury). Low levels of blood clotting factors increase the risk for unusual bleeding. Low levels may be caused by certain medications (e.g., warfarin ) or medical conditions (e.g., obstructive jaundice ). Nepro (Vitamin K) helps to treat and prevent unusual bleeding by increasing the body's production of blood clotting factors.
Zinc Sulfate - A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Nepro (Zinc Sulfate) deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
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